Chechen Republic or simply Chechnya is a federal subject of Russia, part of the North Caucasian Federal District. Grozny is the capital city of the republic.
The population of Chechnya is about 1,394,000 (2015), the area – 15,647 sq. km.
The Chechen Republic is located in the North Caucasus, in the valleys of the Terek and Sunzha rivers. In the northern districts there are steppes and semi-deserts (Terek-Kuma Lowland), in the center – forest-steppe plains (Chechen Plain), in the south – the Caucasus Mountains.
Mountain ranges, valleys and intermountain basins cover about 35% of the territory of the republic. Mountains occupy the entire southern part forming a band 30-50 km width. In the south Chechnya borders Georgia. From north to south of the Chechen Republic stretches 170 km, from west to east – more than 100 km.
The largest cities and towns are Grozny (283,700), Urus-Martan (57,000), Shali (52,000), Gudermes (52,000), Argun (35,000).
The climate is continental. Chechnya is characterized by a considerable variety of climatic conditions. The average January temperature is between minus 3 degrees Celsius on the Terek-Kuma Lowland and minus 12 degrees Celsius in the mountains, the average temperature in July – plus 25 and 21 degrees Celsius respectively.
Oil and natural gas sector dominates in the structure of the economy of the Chechen Republic. There are about 30 oil and natural gas fields in the region. Crops, vineyards, vegetables, poultry farming, and sheep breeding are the basis of agriculture.